The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition (STEP) program

Brief Introduction: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program

Number of Datasets: 694

  • Measured and surveyed maximum 24h precipitation point data of Sichuan-Tibet line and surrounding areas (1935-1999)

    Measured and surveyed maximum 24h precipitation point data of Sichuan-Tibet line and surrounding areas (1935-1999)

    This dataset organizes and collects the measured and surveyed maximum 24h precipitation point data along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway and its surrounding areas. Contains watershed KID, station, province, X coordinate, Y coordinate, rain, date and other field data. A total of 43 records. The data comes from the atlas of rainstorm statistical parameters in China (2006 Edition). The measured and investigated maximum 24h rainfall point data of China's rainstorm statistical parameter Atlas (2006 Edition) are manually digitized along the Sichuan Tibet railway and the surrounding areas. The accuracy of the original data is 1 ° × 1 ° grid data, which is suitable for the comprehensive study of design rainstorm nationwide.

    2022-06-01 176 43

  • Data set of meteorology, soil moisture, soil temperature, crop evapotranspiration and leakage in Pengbo irrigation area of Tibet (2019~2022)

    Data set of meteorology, soil moisture, soil temperature, crop evapotranspiration and leakage in Pengbo irrigation area of Tibet (2019~2022)

    This data set contains the meteorological data of Pengbo irrigation area in Tibet from 2019 to 2022, including rainfall, temperature and relative humidity data, as well as the measured soil moisture and soil temperature data of highland barley, oat and grassland. The data interval is recorded in hours, and the measured time is from 2019 to 2022. The data of soil temperature and soil moisture are relatively detailed, which can reflect the change law of soil moisture and temperature at different time scales of time, day, month, season and year, and can also better meet the calibration and verification requirements of farmland water and heat transport model. The data set also includes crop evapotranspiration data and leakage data, which is helpful to analyze the water consumption of crops in the whole growth period and the water consumption and leakage at different growth stages in the alpine region of Tibet, and plays an important role in clarifying the water balance of different farmland systems. The meteorological, soil moisture, soil temperature, transpiration and leakage data of Pengbo irrigation area in Tibet provided by this data set are helpful to reveal the water transformation process at the farmland scale and irrigation area scale, and fully understand the water and heat transfer process and crop growth state of SPAC system in the high cold region of Tibet.

    2022-05-31 537 54

  • MODIS daily cloud-free factional snow cover data set for Asian water tower area (2000-2022)

    MODIS daily cloud-free factional snow cover data set for Asian water tower area (2000-2022)

    The Asian water tower region, with the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as the core, is the most widely distributed snow area on Earth except for the North and South Poles. The topographic heterogeneity of the Asian water tower region is great, and the snow in the region shows a thin snow layer and large patchy distribution, resulting in the high time-varying characteristics of the snow in the region, so there is an urgent need for daily-scale dynamic monitoring data of snow cover. This dataset is based on the MODIS global surface reflectance product, MO/YD09GA, using the Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis- Automatic-selected Endmembers (MESMA -AGE) and interpolation algorithm based on spatial and temporal information to construct a MODIS day-by-day cloud-free snow cover dataset for the Asian water tower region from 2000 to 2020. With high spatial resolution Landsat images as “ground truth”, the root mean square error is 0.14, which is better than the two snow datasets MODSCAG and MOD10A1 commonly used internationally. The time series of this dataset is from February 26, 2000 to March 31, 2020, which can provide quantitative spatial distribution information of snowpack for mountain hydrological models, land surface models, and numerical weather forecasts.

    2022-05-31 424 45

  • Field investigation of elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) of vegetation in the southeast edge of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountain Area

    Field investigation of elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) of vegetation in the southeast edge of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountain Area

    Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and potassium are important basic life elements of ecosystem. It plays an important role in revealing the impact of its regional variation and spatial pattern on human activities and the sustainable development of ecosystem in the future. The Qinghai Tibet Plateau has unique alpine vegetation types and rich vertical zone landforms and surface cover types. The biogeographic pattern of surface elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) is an important manifestation of the coupling of carbon, nitrogen and water cycle processes and related mechanisms of alpine ecosystems. This dataset focuses on the distribution pattern and spatial variation of surface materials (plant leaf branch stem root and litter) in the complex ecosystem of the southeast edge of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountain area, in order to provide data support for regional model simulation and ecological management.

    2022-05-31 619 0

  • Distribution of flash flood disaster in Himalayas (1840-2019)

    Distribution of flash flood disaster in Himalayas (1840-2019)

    This data set includes 1:1 million historical mountain flood disaster data in the Himalayas, 1:1 million mountain flood prevention and control area distribution data in the Himalayas, 1:1 million mountain flood zoning distribution data in the Himalayas, and 1:1 million key prevention and control area distribution data in the Himalayas. All data are based on the results of national mountain flood disaster investigation and evaluation, and obtain the information of historical mountain flood disaster occurrence time, location, disaster type, cause, longitude, latitude, quantity, distribution and number of victims in the study area, as well as the distribution data of mountain flood zoning, prevention and control area and key prevention and control areas in the study area, so as to form the distribution data set of historical mountain flood disaster in the Himalayas.

    2022-05-31 191 47

  • Seismic waveform of Hoh-Xil short period dense seismic array (2020-2022)

    Seismic waveform of Hoh-Xil short period dense seismic array (2020-2022)

    The data was collected in Qiangtang (2020.11-2020.12) and Altyn-Tagh (2021.11-2022.01). Four natural seismicity, six near-earthquakes and two teleseisms were recorded by 361 short-period seismometers from Nov. 2020 to Dec. 2020. And 315 short-period seismometers recorded five near-earthquakes and two teleseisms (including the mangya earthquake with m5.3 in Qinghai province on December 19, 2021) from November 11, 2021 to November 1, 2022. After data preprocessing (de-mean, de-linear trend and taper), we cut the events recorded by the seismometer with a fixed width of 1500s from the time of earthquake occurrence for each seismic event(i.e., the time range of each seismic event data is [begin, begin +1500s]). For the active source signals recorded, since the node instrument records continuous signals for a month, the signals recorded by each instrument are intercepted according to the initiation time and location, and the seismic records for 200s are intercepted from the initiation time. After time correction, data of each shot were de-mean, de-linear trend and taper.

    2022-05-31 170 1

  • Distribution data of available wind energy resources with 1km resolution in Qinghai Tibet Plateau (1979-2008)

    Distribution data of available wind energy resources with 1km resolution in Qinghai Tibet Plateau (1979-2008)

    The distribution data of available wind energy resources with 1km resolution in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is based on the multi-year average wind speed in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau obtained by numerical simulation, and considering the constraints and restrictions of terrain, water body, urban and other land use on wind energy development, the comprehensive wind energy resource levels are very rich, rich, relatively rich and general. Set the land availability according to the terrain slope and land use type, deduct the 3km range around the town, divide the land availability into 5 intervals from 0 to 1 according to the interval of 0.2, and then divide the annual average wind speed into 4 intervals. The classification of wind energy resources is obtained through the combination of land availability and wind speed. The data are mainly used for detailed survey of wind energy resources and macro site selection of wind farms.

    2022-05-31 317 0

  • Vulnerability assessment map of disaster bearing bodies in Asian water tower area and Himalaya region (2021)

    Vulnerability assessment map of disaster bearing bodies in Asian water tower area and Himalaya region (2021)

    Vulnerability of disaster bearing body is the degree of damage that human social and economic activities may suffer under the disturbance or pressure of natural disasters under a certain social and economic background, that is, the nature that disaster bearing body is vulnerable to damage and loss in the face of natural disasters. Based on the actual scientific research and expert guidance, this data constructs the vulnerability assessment indicators of disaster bearing bodies from the three aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, and uses the revised serv vulnerability model to calculate the Himalayan surrounding areas (domestic part) and the Asian water tower area. In order to systematically analyze the vulnerability of disaster bearing bodies in the study area, this data selects indicators from six aspects: population, economy, traffic lines, ecological environment, livestock and buildings, and constructs an indicator system of 6 first-class indicators, 18 second-class indicators and 29 third-class indicators. After the obtained vulnerability assessment results of population, economy, traffic lines, ecological environment, livestock and buildings are normalized, the vulnerability assessment maps of Himalayan surrounding areas (domestic part) and Asian water tower area are obtained by vector superposition.

    2022-05-31 402 0

  • Driving data of surface meteorological elements in the eastern Qinghai Tibet Plateau with a horizontal resolution of 3km * 3km and an hour (2010)

    Driving data of surface meteorological elements in the eastern Qinghai Tibet Plateau with a horizontal resolution of 3km * 3km and an hour (2010)

    Based on the regional environment integrated system model developed by the Key Laboratory of regional climate and environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a regional climate model for convective analysis of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is established. The grid center of the model simulation area is located at (34n, 100e), the horizontal resolution is 3km, and the number of simulation grid points of the model is 465 (longitude) x 375 (latitude). The vertical direction is 27 floors. The air pressure at the top of the model layer is 50 HPA. The buffer zone consists of 15 grids, the integration time is one year in 2010, and the horizontal resolution of the European medium range weather forecast center is 0.25x0 25. The reanalysis data of era5 with a time interval of 6 hours is used as the driving field to generate the driving data of surface meteorological elements on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2010 with a horizontal resolution of 3 km * 3 km and a time interval of 1 hour After dynamic downscaling by using the convection analysis regional climate model of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the bottleneck problem of the lack of meteorological data sets with long-time series and high spatial-temporal resolution in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and other regions is solved, so as to provide a solid and reliable scientific data foundation for the future change of climate and environment and the construction of ecological security barrier in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2022-05-31 406 0

  • Data set of atmospheric pollutant concentration in Lhasa and Nyingchi, Tibet (May-June, September-October, 2021)

    Data set of atmospheric pollutant concentration in Lhasa and Nyingchi, Tibet (May-June, September-October, 2021)

    The data set contains the on-line monitoring data of air pollutants in Lhasa and Nyingchi, Tibet Autonomous Region. The sample collection time is from May to June and from September to October 2021. The data sampling points were located in Nagin campus of Tibet University in Lhasa, Tibet and Tibet agriculture and Animal Husbandry College in Nyingchi, Tibet. We set up a temporary environmental pollution monitoring station. Thermo Gas Analyzer, GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer, FMPS, AE-33 were used to monitor the concentration of air pollutants such as ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM), ultra-fine particulate matter (UFP) and black carbon (BC) online, Vantage Vue weather station was used to monitor temperature, humidity, air pressure and other meteorological data online. The abnormal values during the operation of the instrument have been deleted, and the time resolution of the data after calibration and cleaning is 1 hour. This data provides basic data for the comprehensive evaluation of the effects of air pollution on population health in Tibet.

    2022-05-30 322 0

  • Observation dataset of soil carbon and nitrogen concentarion in western Tibetan Plateau (2019-2020)

    Observation dataset of soil carbon and nitrogen concentarion in western Tibetan Plateau (2019-2020)

    This data includes the soil carbon and nitrogen content at 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20-30cm soil depths of 52 sample points in the west of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The soil samples were obtained by the research team through soil drilling from 2019 to 2020. After the soil was screened with 2mm aperture, it was air dried and fine roots were removed, and then measured by carbon and nitrogen analyzer in the laboratory. This data can provide a theoretical basis for the study of soil carbon and nitrogen processes at different depths in the western Qinghai Tibet Plateau under the scenario of global climate change in the future, and provide data support for the model to simulate the process of soil carbon and nitrogen cycle, which is conducive to a deeper understanding of the process of soil carbon and nitrogen cycle in the western Qinghai Tibet Plateau.

    2022-05-30 315 0

  • Dataset of classification, spatial distribution, and total accumulation of unconsolidated sediments in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin (2019–2022)

    Dataset of classification, spatial distribution, and total accumulation of unconsolidated sediments in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin (2019–2022)

    The considerable amount of solid clastic material in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin (YTRB)) is one of the important components in recording the uplift and denudation history of the Tibet Plateau. Different types of unconsolidated sediments directly reflect the differential transport of solid clastic material. Revealing its spatial distribution and total accumulation plays an important value in the uplift and denudation process of the Tibet Plateau. The dataset includes three subsets: the type and spatial distribution of unconsolidated sediments in theYTRB, the thickness spatial distribution, and the quantification of total deposition. Taking remote sensing interpretation and geological mapping as the main technical method, the classification and spatial distribution characteristics of unconsolidated sediments in the whole YTRB (16 composite sub-basins) were comprehensively clarified for the first time. Based on the field measurement of sediment thickness, the total accumulation was preliminarily estimated. A massive amount of sediment is an important material source of landslide, debris flow and flood disasters in the basin. Finding out its spatial distribution and total amount accumulation not only has theoretical significance for revealing the key information recorded in the process of sediment source to sink, such as surface environmental change, regional tectonic movement, climate change and biogeochemical cycle, but also has important application value for plateau ecological environment monitoring and protection, flooding disaster warning and prevention, major basic engineering construction, and soil and water conservation.

    2022-05-30 301 0

  • Field investigation of elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) of vegetation in the Water tower area of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Himalayan Mountains (2020s)

    Field investigation of elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) of vegetation in the Water tower area of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Himalayan Mountains (2020s)

    Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and potassium are important basic life elements of ecosystem. It plays an important role in revealing the impact of its regional variation and spatial pattern on human activities and the sustainable development of ecosystem in the future. The Qinghai Tibet Plateau has unique alpine vegetation types and rich vertical zone landforms and surface cover types. The biogeographic pattern of surface elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) is an important manifestation of the coupling of carbon, nitrogen and water cycle processes and related mechanisms of alpine ecosystems. This dataset focuses on the distribution pattern and spatial variation of surface materials (plant leaf branch stem root and litter) in the complex ecosystem of the Water tower area of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Himalayan Mountains, in order to provide data support for regional model simulation and ecological management.

    2022-05-30 488 5

  • 14 Ka quantitative temperature record of Xingyun Lake

    14 Ka quantitative temperature record of Xingyun Lake

    Focusing on the "Holocene temperature problem", the Holocene earth temperature change has become a hot issue in the past climate change research. Based on the fossil sporopollen of Xingyun Lake in Yunnan Province, the newly developed method of quantitative reconstruction significance test based on random data is used to quantitatively reconstruct the summer temperature (average temperature in July) in the study area since the past 14000 years. It is found that there is a difference in the change trend between it and the summer precipitation records based on carbon, acid and oxygen isotopes of sediments in the lake, which is mainly reflected in the uncoupled change of the two in the early Holocene, The early Holocene had higher summer precipitation, but lower summer temperature. The author further puts forward that the internal feedback of the earth system dominated by clouds, aerosols and high latitude ice sheet boundary conditions in the northern hemisphere is the main reason for the uncoupling of early Holocene summer precipitation and temperature in Southwest China.

    2022-05-30 189 40

  • The diurnal(hourly)albedo product coupling topographic effects and combining multi-sensory data over the Tibet Plateau (2016-2019)

    The diurnal(hourly)albedo product coupling topographic effects and combining multi-sensory data over the Tibet Plateau (2016-2019)

    This diurnal (hourly) land surface albedo product is with a spatial resolution of 0.02 ° x 0.02 ° over the Tibet Plateau from 2016-2019. Multi-sensory data is used to retrieve the Extended Multi-Sensor Combined BRDF Inversion model (EMCBI) developed from a kernel-driven BRDF model and coupled with topographic effects, and prior knowledge is introduced for quality control inversion. The high-precision BRDF / albedo of good spatial-temporal continuity is retrieved by combining MODIS reflectance data (a polar orbiting satellite) and himiwarri-8 AHI land surface reflectance (a geostationary satellite ). MODIS land surface reflectance data and AHI TOA reflectance data are downloaded from the official websites. After registration, atmospheric correction and other processing, the daily resolution BRDF is synthesized with a period of 5 days, and then the albedo is estimated. The black sky albedo is calculated hourly from 9:00 to 18:00 at Beijing Time (UTM zone 8). The validation results show that it meets the accuracy requirements of albedo application, and agreed well with the in situ albedo inner-daily variation.Tt has more advantages in capturing rapidly changing surface features, especially the inner-daily variations, and has better temporal and spatial continuity. It can effectively support the study of radiation energy balance and environmental change in the Tibet Plateau.

    2022-05-28 199 38

  • Seasonally frozen ground soil temperature and moisture data set of alpine meadow site in Qinghai Lake Basin(2018-2021)

    Seasonally frozen ground soil temperature and moisture data set of alpine meadow site in Qinghai Lake Basin(2018-2021)

    This dataset is a high-frequency observation data of soil temperature and humidity in the active layer of seasonal frozen soil observed in the alpine meadow of Qianhuli Small watershed of Qinghai Lake, with a time resolution of half an hour. The data set can provide data support for the rate-dependent soil hydrothermal model and dynamic characterization of soil active layer.

    2022-05-26 380 0

  • Physical property data of typical debris flow ditch of G217 and G30 main traffic roads in Tianshan area (2021)

    Physical property data of typical debris flow ditch of G217 and G30 main traffic roads in Tianshan area (2021)

    This data is the material physical property data of the typical debris flow trenches of G217 and G30, the main traffic roads in the Tianshan area. This data is the detailed information of the typical debris flow disaster points in the study area, including watershed parameters, channel parameters, and debris flow accumulation material physical parameters; these data can be Combined with the rainfall data, the research contents such as the rainfall threshold of debris flow activities in this area can be further carried out. Including the area of the debris flow basin, the width of the ditch, the length of the ditch, the vertical gradient, the area of the glacial lake, and the physical properties of the debris flow deposits. The physical property data of the accumulation were obtained by experimental equipment such as a laser particle size analyzer, and the saturated permeability coefficient was obtained by a triaxial experiment.

    2022-05-26 287 3

  • Datasets of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in Muli coal mine area (2000-2020)

    Datasets of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in Muli coal mine area (2000-2020)

    The dataset is the soil fertility data of Muli coal mine area on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2000 to 2020. It is issued every five years, including five periods in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020; A total of 15 image data. The dataset covers a rectangular area (98.82 ° E-100.84 ° E, 37.5 ° N-38.25 ° N), defined by four vertexs of the southeast and northwest of Muli coal mine. The dataset is in grid format, with a spatial resolution of 30m, and the dataset format is GeoTIFF. The dataset takes the 30m surface albedo obtained by spatiotemporal fusion of GLDAS-2.1 albedo products and Landsat 5/8 albedo products, and the 30m surface temperature obtained by spatiotemporal fusion of GLDAS-2.1 surface temperature products and Landsat 5/8 surface temperature products as independent variables. Combined with the multiple regression model, the five-year dataset of total nitrogen(Unit: g / kg), total phosphorus (Unit: g / kg)and total potassium (Unit: g / kg)in Muli coal mine area from 2000 to 2020 is regressed. The multiple regression model adopts the measured data of Huangshui River Basin stations in May 2018. On the premise that the independent variables are the albedo and surface temperature of Landsat 5/8, and the dependent variables are the total phosphorus, total nitrogen and total potassium observed in the field, the multiple regression model is established. These datasets fill the gap of high spatial resolution soil fertility dataset in Muli coal mine, and provide support for the study of temporal and spatial changes of soil fertility in Muli mining area.

    2022-05-26 73 19

  • MODIS Terra 8-days products with 500m spatial resolution over the Tibetan Plateau (2020)

    MODIS Terra 8-days products with 500m spatial resolution over the Tibetan Plateau (2020)

    The dataset includes FPAR, GPP, NPP, evapotranspiration product and LAI product. FPAR product is and LAI product are obtained from the MODIS Terra MOD15A2H dataset, GPP and NPP product are obtained from the MOD15A2H dataset and evapotranspiration product is obtained from MODIS Terra MOD16A2 dataset of 2020 over the Tibetan Plateau,which is downloaded from USGS, and their formats are converted from .hdf to .tif by GDAL.The quality assessment files are also included for aboved products,and they are stored in an efficient bit-encoded manner.The MODIS products play an important role in forest, agriculture, ecology.

    2022-05-26 209 14

  • Magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of Oligocene Baiyanghe Formation in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southern margin of jiuxi Basin

    Magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of Oligocene Baiyanghe Formation in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southern margin of jiuxi Basin

    Magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of the Oligocene Baiyanghe Formation in the southern margin of the Jiuxi Basin on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau. The data are experimental data. The average sampling interval in the field is 1m, and a total of 437 pieces of magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data were obtained. Magnetic susceptibility data was measured with a Bartington MS-2 portable magnetic susceptibility meter; chromaticity data was measured with a Konica Minolta CM-700 spectrophotometer. Sample collection, pre-processing and experimental procedures were carried out in accordance with strict standards, and the quality of the data obtained was reliable. The results show that the magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity values in the lower part of Baiyanghe Formation have consistent and obvious changes. Combined with the variation characteristics of the strata sedimentary facies in the profile, it is believed that a climate change event occurred in the early Baiyanghe Formation in the southern margin of the Jiuxi Basin. A large number of previous studies on stratigraphy, sedimentology and thermochronology revealed that there were no obvious tectonic events in the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau during this period, indicating that the climate change events in this area may be caused by regional climate changes. The climate information reflected by the magnetic susceptibility and chromaticity data of the Baiyanghe Formation in the southern margin of the Jiuxi Basin can provide data support for the study of the paleoclimate in the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau.

    2022-05-26 242 0