Observational datasets of Pan-Third Pole

Brief Introduction: The high-cold regions in China include the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, and the alpine regions of Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, with a total area of about 2.9 million square kilometers. Due to the complexity of topography and geomorphology, the worldwide researches more and more focus on the surface processes of the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent areas. The High-cold Region Observation and Research Network for Land Surface Processes & Environment of China (HORN) has gradually formed. It integrates 17 stations of Chinese Academy of Sciences, for long term observations and researches of land surface processes, including glaciers, permafrost, lades, alpine ecosystem in the high-cold regions of China. It provides a platform support for integrated researches of earth system, through condensation of scientific problems, integration of monitoring resources, improvement of observation capability and level, long-term continuous monitoring of surface processes and environmental changes in cold regions. It also provides data support for revealing the law of climate change and water resources formation and transformation in the headwaters of big rivers, exploring the changes of ecosystem structure and service function, grasping the mechanism of natural disasters such as ice and snow freezing and thawing, and promoting the sustainable development of regional economy and society, etc. A network integrated center is set up to organize research and carry out the specific implementation of network construction. It consists of an office, an observation technology service group and a data integration management group. The participating units of HORN should sign construction/research contracts in order to implement contract-based management, perform all tasks in the contracts and accept the examination and acceptance of the network organization. The network construction should give priority to scientific research, coordinated development, relatively balanced allocation of infrastructure and observation instruments, and free sharing of data within the network. For the principle of sharing and opening, the observatories of the network are open to the whole country. The network cooperates with relevant units through consultation, agreement or contract according to specific tasks and costs; the original observation data are gradually shared based on the principle of first the network, then the department and then the society. The network carries out planned and coordinated cooperation with foreign scientific research institutions and universities, which can improve the level of network observation and expand the content of observation through the cooperation. The HORN is managed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in the allocation of funds and resources.

Number of Datasets: 107

  • Water level of Kalakuli Lake (2019)

    Water level of Kalakuli Lake (2019)

    (1) Data content: daily variation of water level of Kalakuli lake from 2011 to 2019, the coordinates of observation points are 75.03 ° e, 38.43 ° N and 3670m above sea level. (2) Data source and processing method: hobo pressure type automatic water level gauge (u20-001-01) was used, and the recording frequency was 30 minutes. After eliminating the wrong data and abnormal values, the daily change data of water level is obtained by calculation. (3) Data quality description: due to the destruction of the scale in winter, the data is based on the annual observation. Due to the influence of human factors in construction, the data in some periods are missing. () data application prospect: the data can be applied to the research fields of Lake hydrology and hydrological process in high cold region.

    2021-01-29 2188 644

  • Meteorological data at the end of KANGXIWA glacier at mustag station (2015-2018)

    Meteorological data at the end of KANGXIWA glacier at mustag station (2015-2018)

    (1) This data is the meteorological data of mustag station from 2015 to 2018. The observation point is located at 75.29 ° E and 38 ° 40 'n, with an altitude of 4924 meters. The parameters include temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, precipitation and wind speed. (2) Data source and processing method: the data comes from the half-hour data of the automatic weather station of the station. Firstly, the abnormal data in the original records are removed, and then the daily values of these parameters are calculated. (3) Data quality description: data is discontinuous in some periods from January to March (4) The meteorological data can be used in the research of atmospheric science, climatology, physical geography and ecology.

    2021-01-29 2442 50

  • Meteorological data of 3650m at mustag station (2019)

    Meteorological data of 3650m at mustag station (2019)

    (1) This data is the meteorological data of mustag station in 2019. The observation point is located at 75 ° 03.35'e and 38 ° 24.77'n, with an altitude of 3650m. The parameters include temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, precipitation, radiation and wind speed. (2) Data source and processing method: the data comes from the half-hour data of the automatic weather station of the station. Firstly, the abnormal data in the original records are removed, and then the daily values of these parameters are calculated. (3) The meteorological data can be used in the research of atmospheric science, climatology, physical geography and ecology.

    2021-01-29 2684 48

  • Basic meteorological data of Sejila peak at Southeast Tibet station of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2016-2019)

    Basic meteorological data of Sejila peak at Southeast Tibet station of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2016-2019)

    This data is the data of automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) set up at the top of the mountain in the west slope of Sejila by the comprehensive observation and research station of Southeast Tibet alpine environment of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2016. The geographical coordinates are 29.5919 n, 94.6102 e, with an altitude of 4640 m, and the underlying surface is alpine grassland. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s) and air pressure (MB) and daily accumulated value of precipitation. The original data is an average of 30 minutes before October 2018, and an average of 10 minutes after that. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The rainfall instrument model is rg3-m, the atmospheric pressure sensor probe is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. In terms of data quality: the obvious abnormal values are eliminated, the battery is damaged due to snow in the first half of 2019, and the data is missing. The missing temperature data is corrected by using the temperature fitting regression of 43900 m at nearby stations, and the data is yellow. Please pay attention when using it; the monitoring of precipitation starts from August 2019. The data station is a high altitude meteorological station in Southeast Tibet, which will be updated from time to time. It can be used by scientific researchers studying ecology, climate, hydrology, glaciers, etc.

    2021-01-27 2558 72

  • Basic meteorological data of glacier moraine area at 24K in Galongla, Southeast Tibet station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2018-2019)

    Basic meteorological data of glacier moraine area at 24K in Galongla, Southeast Tibet station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2018-2019)

    The data are collected from the automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) in the moraine area of the 24K glacier in the Southeast Tibet Plateau, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The geographic coordinates are 29.765 ° n, 95.712 ° E and 3950 m above sea level. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s), net radiation (w / m2), water vapor pressure (kPa) and air pressure (mbar). In the original data, an average value was recorded every 30 minutes before October 2018, and then an average value was recorded every 10 minutes. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The net radiation probe is nr01, the atmospheric pressure sensor probe is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. Data quality: the data has undergone strict quality control. The original abnormal data of 10 minutes and 30 minutes are removed first, and then the arithmetic mean of each hour is calculated. Finally, the daily value is calculated. If the number of hourly data is less than 24, the data is removed, and the corresponding date data in the data table is empty. In addition to the lack of some parameter data due to the thick snow and low temperature in winter and spring, the data can be used by scientific researchers who study climate, glacier and hydrology through strict quality control.

    2021-01-27 4333 52

  • Basic meteorological data of Yigong (2018-2019)

    Basic meteorological data of Yigong (2018-2019)

    This data is the data of the automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) set up in Yigong Zangbu basin by the Southeast Tibet alpine environment comprehensive observation and research station of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2018. The geographic coordinates are 30.1741 n, 94.9334 e, and the altitude is 2282m. The underlying surface is grassland. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s), water vapor pressure (kPa) and air pressure (MB) and daily accumulated value of precipitation. The original data is an average value recorded in 10 minutes. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The rainfall instrument is tb4, the atmospheric pressure sensor is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. Data quality: the quality of the original data is better, less missing. The data station is a meteorological station in the lower altitude of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which will be updated from time to time in the future. It can be used by researchers studying climate, hydrology, glaciers, etc.

    2021-01-27 2634 68

  • Data on soil temperature, humidity and carbon Flux obtained from a station in southeast Tibet (2007-2019)

    Data on soil temperature, humidity and carbon Flux obtained from a station in southeast Tibet (2007-2019)

    This data set includes daily average data on soil temperature, humidity and carbon flux obtained from a station in Southeast Tibet from 2007 to December 2019. The data collection site is the atmospheric environment observation site of the Integrated Observation and Research Station of the Alpine Environment in Southeast Tibet, which is run by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The site is located at longitude 94°44'18", latitude 29°45'56" and is at an elevation of 3326 m. The observation instrument models are as follows: Soil temperature: Campbell Co 107; Soil humidity: Campbell Co CS616; Carbon flux: Collector model: C3000, Measurement interval: 10 seconds; The observations and data collection were performed in strict accordance with the instrument operating specifications, and the data have been published in relevant academic journals. Data with obvious errors were removed, and missing data were replaced with null values. Observation of the soil thermal flux was stopped in 2013. In 2015, due to damage to the station probe, soil temperature and humidity data were recorded only for the first two months, the probe was repaired in April 2016.

    2021-01-26 3599 952

  • Basic meteorological data of forest line on the east slope of Sygera mountains, at South-East Tibetan plateau Station  of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2018)

    Basic meteorological data of forest line on the east slope of Sygera mountains, at South-East Tibetan plateau Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2018)

    1) Data content (including elements and significance): the data includes daily values of temperature (℃), precipitation (mm), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (M / s) 2) Data source and processing method; air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are daily mean values, precipitation is daily cumulative value; data collection location is 29 ° 39 ′ 25.2 ″ n; 94 ° 42 ′ 25.62 ″ E; 4390m; underlying surface is natural grassland; collector model Campbell Co CR1000, collection time: 10 minutes. Digital automatic data acquisition. The temperature and relative humidity instrument probe is hmp155a; the wind speed sensor is 05103; the precipitation is te525mm; 3) Data quality description; the original data of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are the average value of 10 minutes, and the precipitation is the cumulative value of 10 minutes; the daily average temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed are obtained by arithmetic average or summation. Due to the limitation of sensors, there may be some errors in winter precipitation. 4) In addition, it is convenient for scientists to update the atmospheric data in the future. This data is updated from time to time every year.

    2020-12-21 2375 22

  • Basic meteorological data of forest line on the east slope of Sygera mountains, at South-East Tibetan plateau Station  of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2018)
  • Aerosol optical properties ground-based observation data -- Namucuo station  Everest station, QTP V1.0 (2017-2019)

    Aerosol optical properties ground-based observation data -- Namucuo station Everest station, QTP V1.0 (2017-2019)

    The aerosol optical thickness data of Qomolangma station and Namuco station in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is based on the observation data products of Qomolangma station and Namuco station from the atmospheric radiation view of the Institute of Qinghai Tibet Plateau of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data coverage time is from 2017 to 2019, the time resolution is hour by hour, the coverage sites are Qomolangma station and Namuco station, the longitude and latitude coordinates are (Qomolangma station: 28.365n, 86.948e, Namuco station Mucuo station: 30.7725n, 90.9626e). The source of the observed data is retrieved from the radiation data observed by mfrsr instrument. The characteristic variable is aerosol optical thickness, and the error range of the observed inversion is about 15%. The data format is TXT.

    2020-10-14 3490 984

  • Meteorological observation dataset of the standard meteorological station in the Irtysh River basin(1961-2015)

    Meteorological observation dataset of the standard meteorological station in the Irtysh River basin(1961-2015)

    The "Meteorological observation dataset of the standard meteorological station in the Irtysh River basin" contains the temperature and precipitation observation data at the monthly scale of the Habahe meteorological station, Jimunai meteorological station, Buerjin meteorological station, Fuhai meteorological station, Altay meteorological station and Fuyun meteorological station of the Irtysh river basin. The time scale of the data is month. The data set started in January 1961 (data of Fuyun station was missing from January to May 1961) and ended in December 2015. The special work of ground basic data re-examined the quality of historical informatization documents and revised the site documents with problems and differences. The data set does not revise the homogeneity of data, but segments the stations with obvious heterogeneity.

    2020-08-24 3646 356

  • Aerosol optical property dataset of the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observation (2009-2016)

    Aerosol optical property dataset of the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observation (2009-2016)

    The measurement data of the sun spectrophotometer can be directly used to perform inversion on the optical thickness of the non-water vapor channel, Rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical thickness, and moisture content of the atmospheric air column (using the measurement data at 936 nm of the water vapor channel). The aerosol optical property data set of the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observations was obtained by adopting the Cimel 318 sun photometer, and both the Mt. Qomolangma and Namco stations were involved. The temporal coverage of the data is from 2009 to 2016, and the temporal resolution is one day. The sun photometer has eight observation channels from visible light to near infrared. The center wavelengths are 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 940 and 1120 nm. The field angle of the instrument is 1.2°, and the sun tracking accuracy is 0.1°. According to the direct solar radiation, the aerosol optical thickness of 6 bands can be obtained, and the estimated accuracy is 0.01 to 0.02. Finally, the AERONET unified inversion algorithm was used to obtain aerosol optical thickness, Angstrom index, particle size spectrum, single scattering albedo, phase function, birefringence index, asymmetry factor, etc.

    2020-08-17 4209 371

  • Dataset of black carbon concentration at Mt. Everest Station from May 2015 to May 2017

    Dataset of black carbon concentration at Mt. Everest Station from May 2015 to May 2017

    Black carbon(BC) is a carbonaceous aerosol that mainly emitted from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or biomass. As fine particles in the atmosphere with light-absorbing characteristic, BC can significantly reduce the surface albedo when deposits on snow and ice and accelerate the melting of glaciers and snow cover. New Aethalometer model AE-33 acquires the real-time BC concentration according to the light absorption and attenuation characteristics from the different wavelengths. In addition, AE-33 uses dual-spot measurements, which can compensate for the “spot loading effect” and obtain high-quality BC concentrations. By using the real-time observation data measured by AE-33 at Mt. Everest Station, we analyzed the seasonal and diurnal variations of BC and its sources and transport processes, and we also investigated the transport mechanisms of serious polluted episodes. That can provide basis for future works on assessment of climate effects caused by BC in this region.

    2020-08-15 2930 22

  • Long-term dataset of concentrations of atmospheric POPs in the southeast Tibet (2012-2014)

    Long-term dataset of concentrations of atmospheric POPs in the southeast Tibet (2012-2014)

    This data set is the long-term concentrations of atmospheric POPs in southeast Tibet, including OCP, PCBs and PAHs. The sampling period in this study was from August 2008 to July 2014. The data was gained from the continuous air monitoring program in STORS. In this program, a low-volume air sampler (~100 L/min) was set at STORS to trap particle- and gas-phase chemicals by a glass fiber filter (GFF, diameter of 9 cm) and polyurethane foam plugs (PUFs, 7.5 cm × 6 cm diameter), respectively. Typically, ~700 m3 of air was collected over a two-week period. Total (gas + particle) phase concentrations are reported. POPs were analyzed at Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The air samples were Soxhlet-extracted, purified on an aluminium/silica column (i.d. 8 mm), a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column subsequently. The samples were detected on a gas chromatograph with an ion-trap mass spectrometer (GC-MS, Finnigan Trace GC/PolarisQ) operating under MS–MS mode. A CP-Sil 8CB capillary column (50 m ×0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 μm) was used for OCPs and PCBs and a DB-5MS column (60 m ×0.25mm, film thickness 0.25 μm) was used for PAHs. Field blanks and procedural blanks were prepared. The recoveries ranged from 64% to 112% for OCPs, and 65% to 92% for PAHs. The reported concentrations were not corrected for recoveries.

    2020-08-15 2390 18

  • Observational data of atmospheric black carbon content in the Tibetan plateau at five stations (2019)

    Observational data of atmospheric black carbon content in the Tibetan plateau at five stations (2019)

    As the "water tower" of Asia, the Qinghai Tibet Plateau provides water resources for the main rivers in Asia. BC aerosol emitted from biomass and fossil fuel combustion has a strong absorption effect on radiation, and has an important impact on the energy budget and distribution of the earth system. It is an important influence factor of climate and environmental change. The black carbon aerosols emitted from the surrounding areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau can be transported to the interior of the plateau through the atmospheric circulation, and settle on the surface of snow and ice, which has an important impact on precipitation and glacier mass balance. Black carbon meters were set up at five stations on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and aethalometer was used to measure the black carbon content in the atmosphere online. The time resolution of the data was day by day. This data is an update of the previously released "observational data of black carbon content in the atmosphere of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2018)". The information of the five sites is as follows: Namco: 30 ° 46'N, 90 ° 59'e, 4730 ma.s.l Mt. Everest: 28.21 ° n, 86.56 ° e, 4276 ma. S.l Southeast Tibet: 29 ° 46'N, 94 ° 44'e, 3230 ma.s.l Ali station: 33.39 ° n, 79.70 ° e, 4270 ma. S.l Mostag: 38 ° 24'n, 75 ° 02'e, 3650 ma.s.l

    2020-07-29 2456 2

  • Meteorological data of surface environment and observation network in China's cold region (2014-2017)

    Meteorological data of surface environment and observation network in China's cold region (2014-2017)

    Based on the long-term observation data of each field station in the alpine network and overseas stations in the pan third polar region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third polar region are established; the inversion of data products such as meteorological elements, lake water quantity and quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacial and frozen soil changes are completed through enhanced observation and sample site verification in key regions; based on the IOT Network technology, the development and establishment of multi station network meteorological, hydrological, ecological data management platform, to achieve real-time access to network data and remote control and sharing. The data includes the daily meteorological observation data sets (air temperature, precipitation, wind direction and speed, relative humidity, air pressure, radiation and evaporation) of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2014-2017 from 17 stations of China Alpine network. The data of the three river sources are missing.

    2020-07-21 7730 250

  • Dataset of PM2.5 aerosol particle concentration at different locations on Tibetan Plateau (2019)

    Dataset of PM2.5 aerosol particle concentration at different locations on Tibetan Plateau (2019)

    This data set includes PM2.5 mass concentrations (unit: μ g / m3) of atmospheric aerosol particles from South-East Tibetan plateau Station, Ngari Station, Muztagh Ata Station, Qomolangma station and Namco station. Aerosol PM2.5 fine particles refer to the particles with aerodynamic equivalent diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μ m in ambient air. It can be suspended in the air for a long time, which has an important impact on air quality and visibility. The higher its concentration in the air, the more serious the air pollution. The concentration characteristic data of PM2.5 were calculated every 5 The analysis of aerosol mass concentration in different time scales, such as hour, day and night, season and inter annual, can be achieved by obtaining a group of data frequency for output. This provides important data support for the analysis of aerosol mass concentration changes in different time scales and its influencing factors in different locations of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, as well as the evaluation of local air quality. The data is an update of the published data set of aerosol PM2.5 concentration at different stations on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2018).

    2020-07-18 2996 4

  • Surface environment and meteorological data of observation network in alpine regions of China (2019)

    Surface environment and meteorological data of observation network in alpine regions of China (2019)

    1) Data content (including elements and significance): 19 stations (South-East Tibetan station, Namucuo station, Qomolangma station, Medog station, Ngari station, Naqu station(ITPCAS), Golmud station, Tianshan station, Qilianshan station, Ruoergai station(NIEER) , Yulong Xueshan station, Naqu station(NIEER), Haibei Station, Sanjiangyuan station, Shenzha station, Ruoergai station (CIB), Naqu station(IG SNRR), Lhasa station,Qinghai lake station) Meteorological observation data sets (temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, radiation and evaporation) of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2019 2) Data source and processing method: field observation excel format of 19 stations in Alpine network 3) Data quality description: Daily resolution of stations 4) Achievements and prospects of data application: Based on the long-term observation data of the field stations in the alpine network and the overseas stations in the pan third polar region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third polar region are established; through the intensive observation and sample plot verification in key areas, the meteorological elements, lake water and water quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacier and frozen soil changes are completed According to the inversion of products; based on the technology of Internet of things, the meteorological, hydrological and ecological data management platform with multi station networking is developed to realize real-time acquisition, remote control and sharing of online data.

    2020-07-13 3903 2

  • Meteorological data of the integrated observation and research station of Ngari for desert environment (2009-2017)

    Meteorological data of the integrated observation and research station of Ngari for desert environment (2009-2017)

    The data set includes meteorological data from the Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station from 2009 to 2017. It includes the following basic meteorological parameters: temperature (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: Celsius), relative humidity (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: %), wind speed (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: m/s), wind direction (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: degrees), atmospheric pressure (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: hPa), precipitation (once every 24 hours, unit: mm), water vapour pressure (unit: kPa), evaporation (unit: mm), downward shortwave radiation (unit: W/m2), upward shortwave radiation (unit: W/m2), downward longwave radiation (unit: W/m2), upward longwave radiation (unit: W/m2), net radiation (unit: W/m2), surface albedo (unit: %). The temporal resolution of the data is one day. The data were directly downloaded from the Ngari automatic weather station. The precipitation data represent daily precipitation measured by the automatic rain and snow gauge and corrected based on manual observations. The other observation data are the daily mean value of the measurements taken every half hour. Instrument models of different observations: temperature and humidity: HMP45C air temperature and humidity probe; precipitation: T200-B rain and snow gauge sensor; wind speed and direction: Vaisala 05013 wind speed and direction sensor; net radiation: Kipp Zonen NR01 net radiation sensor; atmospheric pressure: Vaisala PTB210 atmospheric pressure sensor; collector model: CR 1000; acquisition interval: 30 minutes. The data table is processed and quality controlled by a particular person based on observation records. Observations and data acquisition are carried out in strict accordance with the instrument operating specifications, and some data with obvious errors are removed when processing the data table.

    2020-06-24 6114 254

  • Dataset of meteorological elements of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (2014-2017)

    Dataset of meteorological elements of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (2014-2017)

    This dataset is derived from the Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (31.37N, 91.90E, 4509 a.s.l), Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The ground is flat, with open surrounding terrain. An uneven growth of alpine steppe, with a height of 3–20 cm. The observation time of this dataset is from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. The observation elements primarily included the wind speed, air temperature, air relative humidity, air pressure, downward shortwave radiation, precipitation, evaporation, latent heat flux and CO2 flux. The precipitation , evaporation and CO2 flux data are daily cumulative values, and the other variables are daily average values. The observed data are generally continuous, but some data are missing due to power supply failure, and the missing data in this dataset are marked as NAN.

    2020-06-23 6192 888