The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition (STEP) program

Brief Introduction: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program

Number of Datasets: 682

  • Physicochemical properties of glacial snow and ice on the Tibetan Plateau (2015-2020)

    Physicochemical properties of glacial snow and ice on the Tibetan Plateau (2015-2020)

    From 2015 to 2020, physicochemical properties of glacial snow and ice of NO.15 glacier (NO.15), 24K glacier (24K), Azha glacier(AZ), Cuopugou glacier(CPG), Demula glacier (DML), Dongrongbu glacier (DRB), Dongkemadi glacier (DKMD), Dunde glacier (DD), Guliya glacier (GLY), Hongqi Lapu glacier (HQLP), Kangxiwa River glacier (KXW), Kangwure glacier (KWR), Kuoqionggangri glacier (KQGR), Langadingri glacier (LADR), Mengdagangri glacier (MDGR), Mugagangqiong glacier (MGGQ), Muji glacier (MJ), Mushtag glacier (MSTG), Namunani glacier (NMNN), Nima glacier (NM), Nujiangyuantou (NJYT), Palung 4 glacier (PL4), Qiangtang No.1 glacier (QT), Qiangyong glacier (QY), Quma glacier (QM), Seqila glacier (SQL), Tanggula longxiazailongba glacier (LXZ), Xiagangjiang glacier (XGJ), Yala glacier (YL), Zepugou glacier (ZPG), Zhuxigou glacier (ZXG) on the Tibetan plateau, including DOC The samples were analyzed by 0.45 µm molecular membranes. Samples were filtered through 0.45 micron molecular membranes and tested using a Shimadzu TOC-L instrument, while ion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography. The unit of the indicator is mg/L. "n.a." means below the detection limit of the instrument, and "\" means missing value. Sheet1 in the table is "Physicochemical properties of glaciers and snow ice on the Tibetan Plateau (2015-2020)", and sheet2 is "Basic information of glaciers".

    2022-05-20 149 1

  • Socio economic data of Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas (2015)

    Socio economic data of Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas (2015)

    The data is 1:250000 socio-economic data of Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas, including GDP, population and other data. Population and GDP are one of the important indicators of social and economic development, regional planning and resource and environmental protection. Administrative regions are usually taken as the basic statistical unit. The spatialization of population and GDP replaces the traditional administrative statistics unit with spatial statistics unit, which brings great convenience for data sharing and spatial statistical analysis among multiple fields. The data comes from the kilometer grid data set of China's population and GDP spatial distribution of resource and environmental science and data center. The data set of China's population and GDP spatial distribution kilometer grid of resource and environmental science and data center is cut according to the scope of Sichuan Tibet railway and surrounding areas. The data is in grid format and accurate to every square kilometer. It is applicable to the Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas. Population and GDP are one of the important indicators of social and economic development, regional planning and resource and environmental protection.

    2022-05-19 104 17

  • Distribution data of water system in 1:250000 class III watershed along Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas (2012)

    Distribution data of water system in 1:250000 class III watershed along Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas (2012)

    This data set is extracted according to the mask of Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas according to the data of 1:250000 river water system in three-level watershed of Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2012), which is vector data. Geographic coordinate system: GCS_ China_ Geodetic_ Coordinate_ System_ 2000; Spatial accuracy: scale 1:250000. The data can be opened and used by ArcGIS, envi or other geographic information systems and remote sensing software. Water system can be used to divide small watersheds, determine the watershed area, and calculate the characteristic parameters of water system, such as river network density, river system development coefficient, river system non-uniformity coefficient, etc. it plays an important role in the field of hydrology.

    2022-05-19 118 28

  • 1:250000 topographic data of Himalayan basin (2018)

    1:250000 topographic data of Himalayan basin (2018)

    The data is 1:250000 topographic data of the Himalayan mountains where the Himalayan mountain basin is located. It is extracted by strm90m elevation data entity according to the Himalayan mountain boundary mask in ArcGIS software. It is 90m grid resolution. Because DEM describes the ground elevation information, it is widely used in the fields of Surveying and mapping, hydrology, meteorology, geomorphology, geology, soil, engineering construction, communication, military and other national economy and national defense construction, as well as humanities and natural sciences. In terms of flood control and disaster reduction, DEM is the basis for hydrological analysis, such as catchment area analysis, water system network analysis, rainfall analysis, flood storage calculation, inundation analysis, etc.

    2022-05-19 101 19

  • 1:4 million geomorphic type data of Qinghai Tibet Plateau (1996)

    1:4 million geomorphic type data of Qinghai Tibet Plateau (1996)

    The data is 1:4 million geomorphic type data of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The geomorphic map can express the results of geomorphic research and is an important method to study geomorphology. It plays an important role in geomorphology and the continuous development of geomorphic research. The data includes two parts. SHP data comes from China's 1:4 million morphological and geomorphic map, and the spatial scope is in China; Grid data is from USGS( https://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/outgoing/ecosystems/Global/ ), the spatial scope extends to the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and adjacent mountainous areas, including some overseas areas. The vector data consists of 1:4 million morphological geomorphic map, which is scanned, registered and vector digitized. During digitization, the accuracy is guaranteed to be within 2 pixels. The grid data is obtained through spatial calibration, accuracy verification and cutting. The detailed data processing process can be seen https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/tgis.12265 。

    2022-05-19 268 0

  • Monthly meteorological data set with 1km resolution on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2018-2019)

    Monthly meteorological data set with 1km resolution on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2018-2019)

    The monthly meteorological data set with 1km resolution on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 2018 to 2019 is from January 2018 to December 2019. The original data comes from chelsa (climatology at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas). After spatial correction, accuracy verification and cutting, 1km resolution precipitation, wind speed, air temperature and humidity data are obtained. The data can be opened and used by ArcGIS, envi or other geographic information systems and remote sensing software.

    2022-05-19 242 0

  • Petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical datasets of modern river sand in Yarlung Tsangpo drainage basin (2001-2019)

    Petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical datasets of modern river sand in Yarlung Tsangpo drainage basin (2001-2019)

    The samples in this data set are mainly collected from 2013-2019 and sporadic river sediment samples from 2001-2013. The data set contains the sampling location information of 40 main stem samples and 107 tributary samples, petrographic data of 62 river sediment samples, heavy-mineral data of 145 river sediment samples, and geochemical data of 55 samples. The petrographic data were collected with Gazzi-Dickinson method with grain size window at 63-2000 μm. The heavy minerals are separated from 32-500 μm sediment with the heavy liquid (2.90 g/cm3) and liquid Nitrogen, and then counted the heavy minerals depend on the mineral's optical properties and Raman spectroscopy. The geochemical analysis were tested for sediment < 2000 μm. The data of petrography and heavy minerals were collected in the laboratories of University of Milan-Bicocca and Nanjing University, respectively. The geochemical data were completed by the Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. All the results are true and reliable. This data set systematically reflects the sediment compositions of different tributaries and different tectonic domains (Tethys Himalayan terrane, Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone, Lhasa Block, etc.) in the Yarlung Tsangpo drainage. With the high-resolution compositional dataset, the distribution characteristics of modern sediment derived from different lithology/rivers in the Southern Tibet can be obtained, which also provide the reference for deep time provenance comparison. Meanwhile, combined with the forward mixing model, we can calculate that the Lhasa Block contributes ~80% of the sandy sediments to the Yarlung Tsangpo drainage, which can be up to 5 times higher than the contribution of the Tethys Himalaya, whereas the sediment contribution from the Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone is only less than 5%.

    2022-05-19 101 17

  • Major/trace element and Nd/Sr isotope compositions of riverine sands in the Yarlung Zangbo-Brahmaputra-Ganges river system

    Major/trace element and Nd/Sr isotope compositions of riverine sands in the Yarlung Zangbo-Brahmaputra-Ganges river system

    This dataset include major, trace, neodymium and strontium isotope geochemical data of 72 riverine sand samples from the Yarlung Tsangpo-Brahmaputra-Ganges river system, including 48 samples from the Yarlung Tsangpo River and its tributaries, 19 samples from the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries, and 5 samples from the Ganges River. The major elements include SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and other 7 elements from all 72 samples, expressed as percentage of oxides; trace elements include Li, Be, Sc and other 41 elements from 30 samples, expressed as parts per million (ppm); neodymium isotope data includes 143Nd/144Nd ratios and their error values from 26 samples; while strontium isotope data includes 87Sr/86Sr ratios and their error values for 26 samples. The main elements were analyzed using a PANalytical Axios X-ray fluorescence analyzer (XRF), with testing errors <3%; trace elements were tested using a Thermo Fisher VG-X7 inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), with testing errors <5%; Nd and Sr isotopes were tested using a Thermo Fisher NEPTUNE plus multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS), with deviations of <0.005% for Sr and <0.004% for Nd isotopes relative to the reference values of the international standards. All the above laboratory tests were performed at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University. The data are of both scientific and social importance for understanding the tectonic activity, chemical weathering, and source-to-sink transport of riverine sediments in large drainage basins from the Tibetan Plateau, as well as for assessing the inter-relationship between natural processes and human activities.

    2022-05-19 104 0

  • Structural geological mapping profile data of the Hoh Xil (2020-2021)

    Structural geological mapping profile data of the Hoh Xil (2020-2021)

    Structural geological profile along the survey line of deep reflection seismic profile (Dogcuoren Lake-Whale Lake section, with a total length of about 200 km) (scale of 1:100000). The section is mainly drawn based on the field geological survey along the reflection section survey line and the 1:250000 Regional Geological Map of the area where the survey line is located. Combined with the field occurrence data and 1:250000 Regional geological map data, the structural geological section is drawn with CorelDRAW and other software. The geological structure profile drawn at the scale of 1:100000 can roughly reflect the geological structure and structural characteristics along the reflection profile. The geometric structure information obtained from the geological structure section can provide shallow structural constraints for the structural interpretation of the later deep reflection seismic section and the production of the equilibrium section.

    2022-05-19 71 15

  • Qinghai Tibetan sheep and Qinghai fine wool sheep tissue sample data set (2021)

    Qinghai Tibetan sheep and Qinghai fine wool sheep tissue sample data set (2021)

    In order to collect the special germplasm resources of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and excavate the molecular markers affecting the special germplasm resources, individual sheep with excellent ectopic spots were selected for marker assisted selection, propagation and generation breeding according to the genetic marker information, so as to cultivate the families of special germplasm resources. In 2021, this sub project (2019QZKK05010704) widely collected samples of Qinghai Tibetan sheep and Qinghai fine wool sheep in Haibei, Qinghai, and continued to establish and expand the first and second core groups in Ledu agricultural experimental station and Qinghai Sanjiaocheng sheep breeding farm. This data set contains the basic information of 1050 tissue samples, including variety, collection place, collection time, gender, tissue type, preservation method, etc.

    2022-05-19 119 0

  • Genomic genetic characteristics and germplasm resources data set of Hevea cattle in southern Tibet and its surrounding areas (2021)

    Genomic genetic characteristics and germplasm resources data set of Hevea cattle in southern Tibet and its surrounding areas (2021)

    In order to analyze the genomic characteristics, domestication, population history, genetic diversity and population differentiation characteristics of large forehead cattle, as well as the genetic basis of excellent meat economic traits of large forehead cattle, this sub project (2019QZKK05010703) investigated the genetic resources of Dulong cattle and Gaofeng cattle in Kunming and Wenshan Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province in 2021, and collected tissue samples of heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. Provide scientific theoretical reference for the protection, development and utilization of large cattle germplasm resources, and promote the development of high-end beef cattle industry in China. This data set contains individual photos and tissue sample information table, which records basic information such as variety, collection place, collection time, sample type, sampling position and so on.

    2022-05-19 180 0

  • Sichuan small animal specimens and tissue samples, Tibet infrared camera photo data set (2021)

    Sichuan small animal specimens and tissue samples, Tibet infrared camera photo data set (2021)

    In order to analyze the animal diversity pattern of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and establish the corresponding animal specimen database. In 2021, this sub project (2019QZKK05010109) focused on Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. A total of 271 specimens of local wild animals, such as Apodemus agrarius and social rats, were collected. The solid samples include animal individuals, skins, tissues, etc. This data set contains one specimen information table (271 copies), one tissue sample information table (271 copies), and photos taken by Tibet Chayu moto infrared camera. The sample information table contains basic sample information such as species, variety, detailed sampling place, sample type, collection time, collector and storage method, which is stored in the form of Excel. Photos, stored in JPG format.

    2022-05-18 103 0

  • Vegetation map of Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 1980s

    Vegetation map of Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 1980s

    Vegetation map of Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 1980s: Region: Zhang Yili, etc. 2021 edition of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Data sources: Landsat 4-5 TM images from 1980 to 1988 (spatial resolution of about 30m), field survey data, 1:1 million vegetation map, Google Earth image, climate, terrain, landform, soil, land cover data, etc. Mapping methods: (1) preliminary patch segmentation, using object-oriented method to preliminarily segment remote sensing images to form preliminary cartographic patches; (2) Visual interpretation: integrate the field survey data, 1:1 million vegetation map, Google Earth image, climate, terrain, landform, soil and land cover data to visually interpret and map the preliminary mapping patches; (3) Cross validation, using topographic map, 1:1 million vegetation map and land use map for logical verification; (4) The legend system adopts the classification standard, legend unit and system of vegetation map of the people's Republic of China (1:1, 000, 000), 2007, including vegetation type group and vegetation type 2 units. There are 11 vegetation type groups, 46 vegetation types and 10 non vegetation sections in the mapping area; (5) Vegetation map decoration adopts the method of combining map spots and numbers to represent different vegetation types and mapping units; (6) Based on the accuracy of the data used in the mapping, the maximum drawing scale of this drawing is 1:500000.

    2022-05-18 307 11

  • Analysis data of elements, isotopes and chronology of deposits in Kunlun Mountain Area (2019-2022)

    Analysis data of elements, isotopes and chronology of deposits in Kunlun Mountain Area (2019-2022)

    The data mainly include the study of typical porphyry deposits, skarn deposits, magmatic deposits and pegmatite deposits in Kunlun mountain area. Porphyry deposits, focus on determining the deep process and front response of mineralization, and then clarify the genetic model and metallogenic law; Skarn type deposit, focusing on the relationship between the migration and evolution of hydrothermal fluid and mineralization; Copper nickel sulfide deposit, focusing on finding out the location and mode of magma assimilation and contamination of the crust, and then revealing the melting and dissociation process of sulfide; Pegmatite type deposits focus on the migration behavior of elements in the process of magmatic hydrothermal transformation, and then reveal the enrichment mechanism of rare metals such as Li, be, Nb and Ta in pegmatites. The experimental data obtained this time is mainly through the collection of field scientific research samples, and the elements, isotopes and chronology of the collected ore and rock samples in summer hamu, kendecok, Dahongliutan and other mining areas. The preliminary research processing results show that the data quality is high.

    2022-05-18 86 0

  • A dataset of soil carbon stock to 3m depth at Tibetan Plateau (2019)

    A dataset of soil carbon stock to 3m depth at Tibetan Plateau (2019)

    The dataset based on synthesized data from 1114 sites across the Tibetan permafrost region which report that paleoclimate is more important than modern climate in shaping current permafrost carbon distribution.A new estimate of modern soil carbon stock to 3m depth on Tibetan permafrost region was derived by machine learning algorithm, including factors such as climate (paleoclimate and modern climate), vegetation, soil (soil thickness and soil physical and chemical properties, etc.) and topography. This dataset shows that ecosystem models clearly underestimated the Tibetan soil carbon stock, due to the absence of paleoclimate effects in the model. Future modelling of soil carbon cycling should include paleoclimate .

    2022-05-18 217 3

  • Multi-scale dataset of environment and element-at-risk for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Multi-scale dataset of environment and element-at-risk for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    The multi-scale dataset of environment and element-at-risk for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau includes geomorphic data, normalized vegetation index data, annual temperature and rainfall data, and disaster bearing value grade data, covering an area of 6.56 million square kilometers. The data set is mainly prepared for disaster and risk assessment. Due to the huge coverage, the geomorphic data adopts 150m spatial resolution and other data adopts 1000m spatial resolution. Geomorphology, vegetation index, temperature and rainfall data are mainly produced by processing open source data, and disaster bearing value grade data are produced by superposition calculation, comprehensively considering population data, night light index, buildings and surface cover types.

    2022-05-17 118 19

  • Qinghai Plateau Pika tissue sample (2021)

    Qinghai Plateau Pika tissue sample (2021)

    In order to describe the distribution pattern of genetic diversity of important rodents in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, clarify their related genetic background, and establish the corresponding genetic resource bank. In 2021, this sub project (2019QZKK05010410) focused on the investigation of plateau pika in Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Golog Prefecture and Hainan prefecture, Qinghai. A total of 200 plateau pika samples were collected, and the solid samples were spleen and lung tissues. This data set contains a sample information table and habitat photos, work photos and work videos. The sample information table contains basic sample information such as species, gender, detailed sampling place, altitude, sample type, collection time, collector and storage method, which are stored in the form of Excel.

    2022-05-17 248 0

  • Pollen percentage dataset for 24 common taxa of 318 surface-soil samples on the Tibetan Plateau

    Pollen percentage dataset for 24 common taxa of 318 surface-soil samples on the Tibetan Plateau

    Understanding the modern relationships between pollen and vegetation, climate, and human land-use completely, is essential for quantitative reconstructions of past vegetation, climate and human impacts. supported by the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program, we have collected more than 700 surface-soil samples together with detail vegetation survey. Hitherto, pollen analysis of 318 samples have been completed, and the submitted modern pollen dataset includes the pollen percentages of 24 common taxa, the sampling sites of the dataset cover the all vegetation types on the east and central Tibetan Plateau. The dataset can be utilized in establishment for pollen-climate, pollen-vegetation calibration-sets.

    2022-05-16 161 0

  • Precipitation data of Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas (1935-1999)

    Precipitation data of Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas (1935-1999)

    This data set collates and collects the measured and investigated maximum 24h rainfall point data along the Sichuan Tibet railway and its surrounding areas. It contains field data of watershed kid, station, province, X coordinate, y coordinate, rain, date, etc. A total of 43 records. Data source: Atlas of rainstorm statistical parameters in China (2006 Edition). Processing method: manually digitize the measured and investigated maximum 24h rainfall point data of China's rainstorm statistical parameter Atlas (2006 Edition) in the areas along and around the Sichuan Tibet railway. The data set also includes the maximum 24h precipitation values (1950s-2010s) of all sub watershed units in the assessment area along the Sichuan Tibet railway, which are calculated according to the frequency of the annual maximum 24h precipitation sequence in the assessment area. In the process of processing, the operators are required to strictly abide by the operation specifications, and a special person is responsible for the quality review. The data integrity, logical consistency, position accuracy, attribute accuracy, edge connection accuracy and current situation all meet the requirements of relevant technical regulations and standards formulated by the State Bureau of Surveying and mapping, and the quality is excellent and reliable.

    2022-05-13 108 19

  • Compilation of cases of major mountain torrents along the Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas (1840-2019)

    Compilation of cases of major mountain torrents along the Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas (1840-2019)

    Based on the compilation of major mountain torrent disaster cases from 1840 to 2019, this data is the mountain torrent disaster investigation data along the Sichuan Tibet railway, including time, location, disaster type, cause, longitude, latitude, rainfall, railway section and disaster loss information. According to the characteristics of different data sources such as investigation and compilation of historical flood data in China, national mountain flood disaster prevention and control project (2013-2015), mountain flood disaster investigation results and field investigation in Sichuan Province and Tibet Autonomous Region, the authenticity and consistency of the original data are checked and standardized; Then analyze, sort and summarize according to the data source and data; Finally, the use of SuperMap software for processing.

    2022-05-13 332 29