The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition (STEP) program

Brief Introduction: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program

Number of Datasets: 682

  • Biomarker data of Qilian Mountains (2022)

    Biomarker data of Qilian Mountains (2022)

    1) Data content: Biomarker data can be used to reconstruct palaeoclimate. In addition to climate reconstruction, this set of data also tries to reconstruct palaeoclimate altitude, and obtains good results 2) Data sources and processing methods Biomarker analysis: After ultrasonic extraction, the samples were separated by column chromatography to obtain methanol elution components. After constant volume, the GDGT data were tested and analyzed on LC-MS 3) Data quality Sample collection and experimental processing were carried out in accordance with strict standards, and the data obtained were of reliable quality. 4) Data application achievements and prospects Published a SCI paper using these data (Frontiers in Earth Science).

    2022-06-04 103 20

  • 2022-06-04 15 0

  • Approximate vegetation restoration map of Qinghai Tibet Plateau

    Approximate vegetation restoration map of Qinghai Tibet Plateau

    Mapping scope: the scope of Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2002 Edition) by Zhang Yili, etc. Data source: vegetation map of Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 1980s, climate, terrain, landform, soil data, etc. Mapping method: the restored vegetation map is a vegetation map that reflects the distribution of the original vegetation before it was damaged by human economic activities. Due to the lack of early vegetation distribution map of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, based on the vegetation map of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in the 1980s prepared by the project team, the approximate Restored Vegetation Map is prepared through the following methods. Based on the vegetation map of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in the 1980s and the worldclim19 bioclimatic data in 1980, the relationship between bioclimatic data and natural vegetation is analyzed to determine the climate data change range corresponding to the distribution of various natural vegetation. For the artificial vegetation in the 1980's vegetation map, the earliest 1960 worldclim19 biological climate data are used to judge the corresponding natural vegetation according to the climate data of the artificial vegetation distribution area and the relationship between the vegetation distribution and climate, and replace the artificial vegetation in this area with natural vegetation. On this basis, further consider the zonal law of vegetation distribution and its relationship with terrain, landform and soil, analyze the previous judgment results according to the remaining natural vegetation around the artificial vegetation and the surrounding zonal vegetation, cross verify the accuracy of the artificial vegetation replacement results, and make appropriate corrections. The natural vegetation in the 1980's vegetation map, such as coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, shrub, desert, grassland and meadow, remains unchanged. Based on the above analysis results, an approximate Restored Vegetation Map is obtained. The vegetation classification unit is the same as the vegetation map of Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 1980s. Based on the accuracy of the data used in the mapping, the maximum mapping scale of this drawing is 1:500000.

    2022-06-04 289 4

  • The maximum 24h precipitation in Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas for many years (1950s-2010s)

    The maximum 24h precipitation in Sichuan Tibet line and surrounding areas for many years (1950s-2010s)

    This data includes the maximum 24h precipitation values of all sub watershed units along the Sichuan Tibet railway and its surrounding areas. According to the original data of the hourly observation data of China ground meteorological station, the frequency of the annual maximum 24h precipitation sequence in the assessment area is calculated. The data are accumulated according to the hourly rainfall process of each grid point from 1979 to 2018 to obtain the maximum 24h precipitation sequence year by year, fit the precipitation frequency curve of the assessment area, obtain the maximum 24h precipitation value once in ten years, and use GIS to make statistics to the sub watershed assessment unit. It can be used in the fields of weather and climate monitoring, climate change research, model test and hydrological forecast along and around the Sichuan Tibet railway.

    2022-06-03 84 22

  • Magnetotelluric data set of Yangbajing Geothermal field, Dangxiong County, Tibet (2021)

    Magnetotelluric data set of Yangbajing Geothermal field, Dangxiong County, Tibet (2021)

    This data set is the original observation data of magnetotelluric method (MT) collected by the project team in Yangbajing Geothermal field, Dangxiong County, Tibet. The data format is EDI and contains 53 files. The data set contains 4 MT profiles, with the distance between survey lines of about 1km and the distance between survey points of about 500m. The field data acquisition equipment adopts the new SEP ground electromagnetic detection system developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. At each MT measuring point, the two horizontal components ex (north-south direction) and ey (east-west direction) of the electric field are measured with a non polarized electrode, and the three components HX (north-south direction), hy (east-west direction) and Hz (plumb bob direction) of the magnetic field are measured with a magnetic sensor. The observation time of each measuring point exceeds 10 hours, and the effective frequency range is 320 hz~0.001 Hz. Through the preprocessing and inversion of the data set, the electrical structure in the depth of 10km in Yangbajing Geothermal field can be obtained, which provides a basis for the location and scale of deep heat sources, heat control and heat conduction structures in the investigation area.

    2022-06-03 126 12

  • Magnetotelluric data set of Yangyi Geothermal field, Dangxiong County, Tibet (2021)

    Magnetotelluric data set of Yangyi Geothermal field, Dangxiong County, Tibet (2021)

    This data set is the original observation data of magnetotelluric method (MT) collected by the project team in Yangyi geothermal field, Dangxiong County, Tibet. The data format is EDI and contains 36 files. The data set contains 3 MT profiles, with the distance between survey lines of about 1km and the distance between survey points of about 500m. The field data acquisition equipment adopts the new SEP ground electromagnetic detection system developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. At each MT measuring point, the two horizontal components ex (north-south direction) and ey (east-west direction) of the electric field are measured with a non polarized electrode, and the three components HX (north-south direction), hy (east-west direction) and Hz (plumb bob direction) of the magnetic field are measured with a magnetic sensor. The observation time of each measuring point exceeds 10 hours, and the effective frequency range is 320 hz~0.001 Hz. Through the preprocessing and inversion of the data set, the electrical structure in the depth of 10km in Yangyi geothermal field can be obtained, which provides a basis for the location and scale of deep heat sources, heat control and heat conduction structures in the investigation area.

    2022-06-03 124 0

  • Risk assessment data of factors causing freezing-thawing disasters in the Himalayan Region and Water tower region of Asia (2021)

    Risk assessment data of factors causing freezing-thawing disasters in the Himalayan Region and Water tower region of Asia (2021)

    Freezing-thawing disaster is the frost heaving and thawing settling caused by the change of thermal and mechanical stability of frozen soil, as well as the geological disasters caused by it, such as frost heaving hillock, ice cone, thermal thawing slump, thermal thawing subsidence, thawing mud flow, etc. In order to reveal the regional risk characteristics of freezing-thawing disasters around The Himalayas and in Asia's water tower region, it is very important to carry out the risk assessment of the factors causing the freezing-thawing disasters around the Himalayas and Asia's water tower region.The risk assessment of the risk factors of freezing-thawing disaster is mainly based on the climate, geography, environment and other factors of the evaluation area, and the geological conditions of the area are considered as the main factors of the risk assessment, and the risk assessment of the risk factors is graded.

    2022-06-03 104 17

  • 14 Ka oxygen isotope records of Xingyun Lake, Yunnan Province

    14 Ka oxygen isotope records of Xingyun Lake, Yunnan Province

    This data includes carbonate oxygen isotope data and core age data of Xingyun Lake sediments. The first column: core depth, the second column: core age frame (CAL yr BP), and the third column: carbonate oxygen isotope data. The core of Xingyun Lake is 745cm long and 14ka old. There are 149 carbonate oxygen isotope data. The summer precipitation records in Xingyun Lake since the past 14 Ka have been reconstructed by using carbonate oxygen isotopes in the sediments of Xingyun Lake. The reconstruction results show that the summer precipitation of mingmingyun Lake Basin in early Holocene is high; Since the middle Holocene, summer precipitation has gradually decreased, which is mainly controlled by summer solar radiation.

    2022-06-02 84 22

  • Heavy mineral data from Dahonggou section, Qaidam Basin (5-20Ma)

    Heavy mineral data from Dahonggou section, Qaidam Basin (5-20Ma)

    1) Data content: The table contains the heavy mineral data results of Dahonggou profile during the period of 20-5ma, as well as the lithology of the sample, sampling stratum location and GPS points. The analysis results of heavy mineral data show that the Dahonggou section in the northern Qaidam Basin experienced three phased provenance changes at ~19 Ma, 11 Ma and 8 Ma, which provides heavy mineral data support for understanding the provenance change history in the northern Qaidam Basin since the Miocene. 2) Data source and processing method Extraction and testing of heavy minerals: first remove fine particles (< 5 μ m) Light minerals, then heavy liquid tribromomethane is used to further extract heavy minerals through centrifugation, freezing and extraction. Finally, qemscan mineral identification technology is used for quantitative identification. 3) Data quality The sample collection and experimental treatment were carried out according to strict standards, and the data obtained were reliable. 4) Data application achievements and Prospects One SCI paper was published with this set of data.

    2022-06-01 80 25

  • Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope data set of groundwater and surface water in Naqu basin, the upper reaches of Nujiang River (2020-2021)

    Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope data set of groundwater and surface water in Naqu basin, the upper reaches of Nujiang River (2020-2021)

    From September 3 to September 9, 2020, groundwater and surface water were collected in the upper reaches of Nujiang River Basin (i.e. Naqu basin in Nujiang River source area), and the samples were immediately put into 100 ml high density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles. 18O and D are analyzed and tested by liquid water isotope analyzer (picarro l2140-i, USA), and the stable isotope ratio is expressed by the thousand difference relative to Vienna "standard average seawater" (VSMOW). δ 18O and δ The analysis error of D is ± 0.1 ‰ and ± 1 ‰ respectively. It provides basic data support for subsequent analysis of groundwater source analysis in Naqu basin.

    2022-06-01 94 0

  • The dataset of measured soil thickness, soil physical properties and soil hydraulic characteristics in Yarlung Zangbo River Basin

    The dataset of measured soil thickness, soil physical properties and soil hydraulic characteristics in Yarlung Zangbo River Basin

    The dataset includes the measured soil thickness data at 148 points in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, as well as the physical properties and hydraulic characteristics (such as particle size, saturated water content, organic matter content, saturated hydraulic conductivity, etc.) of soil samples at 40 points. The sampling points are distributed from Zhongba County in the upper reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River basin to Nyingchi city in the lower reaches. The soil thickness data is obtained through the excavation profile measurement, and other soil data are obtained from the collected ring knife samples according to the standardized experimental process, so the data accuracy is high. The soil data of the Yarlung Zangbo River basin provided by this dataset can provide a reference for large-scale soil mapping on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and improve the prediction accuracy of relevant studies.

    2022-06-01 147 0

  • Dataset of discharge and meteorological data of Duodigou Alpine Runoff Experimental Basin on the Tibet Plateau (2018-2021)

    Dataset of discharge and meteorological data of Duodigou Alpine Runoff Experimental Basin on the Tibet Plateau (2018-2021)

    This dataset provides the monitoring data of runoff, precipitation and temperature of the Duodigou Runoff Experimental Station located in the northern suburbs of Lhasa city. Among the dataset, there are two runoff monitoring stations, which provide discharge data from June to December 2019, with a data step of 10 minutes. There are five precipitation monitoring stations, which provide precipitation data from 2018 to 2021, with a data step of 1 day. There are eight air temperature monitoring stations, which provide air temperature data from 2018 to 2021 in 30 minute steps. The discharge, the precipitation and the temperature data are the measured values. The dataset can provide data support for the study of hydrological and meteorological processes in the Tibet Plateau.

    2022-06-01 150 0

  • Measured and surveyed maximum 24h precipitation point data of Sichuan-Tibet line and surrounding areas (1935-1999)

    Measured and surveyed maximum 24h precipitation point data of Sichuan-Tibet line and surrounding areas (1935-1999)

    This dataset organizes and collects the measured and surveyed maximum 24h precipitation point data along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway and its surrounding areas. Contains watershed KID, station, province, X coordinate, Y coordinate, rain, date and other field data. A total of 43 records. The data comes from the atlas of rainstorm statistical parameters in China (2006 Edition). The measured and investigated maximum 24h rainfall point data of China's rainstorm statistical parameter Atlas (2006 Edition) are manually digitized along the Sichuan Tibet railway and the surrounding areas. The accuracy of the original data is 1 ° × 1 ° grid data, which is suitable for the comprehensive study of design rainstorm nationwide.

    2022-06-01 88 21

  • Data set of meteorology, soil moisture, soil temperature, crop evapotranspiration and leakage in Pengbo irrigation area of Tibet (2019~2022)

    Data set of meteorology, soil moisture, soil temperature, crop evapotranspiration and leakage in Pengbo irrigation area of Tibet (2019~2022)

    This data set contains the meteorological data of Pengbo irrigation area in Tibet from 2019 to 2022, including rainfall, temperature and relative humidity data, as well as the measured soil moisture and soil temperature data of highland barley, oat and grassland. The data interval is recorded in hours, and the measured time is from 2019 to 2022. The data of soil temperature and soil moisture are relatively detailed, which can reflect the change law of soil moisture and temperature at different time scales of time, day, month, season and year, and can also better meet the calibration and verification requirements of farmland water and heat transport model. The data set also includes crop evapotranspiration data and leakage data, which is helpful to analyze the water consumption of crops in the whole growth period and the water consumption and leakage at different growth stages in the alpine region of Tibet, and plays an important role in clarifying the water balance of different farmland systems. The meteorological, soil moisture, soil temperature, transpiration and leakage data of Pengbo irrigation area in Tibet provided by this data set are helpful to reveal the water transformation process at the farmland scale and irrigation area scale, and fully understand the water and heat transfer process and crop growth state of SPAC system in the high cold region of Tibet.

    2022-05-31 185 26

  • MODIS daily cloud-free factional snow cover data set for Asian water tower area (2000-2022)

    MODIS daily cloud-free factional snow cover data set for Asian water tower area (2000-2022)

    The Asian water tower region, with the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as the core, is the most widely distributed snow area on Earth except for the North and South Poles. The topographic heterogeneity of the Asian water tower region is great, and the snow in the region shows a thin snow layer and large patchy distribution, resulting in the high time-varying characteristics of the snow in the region, so there is an urgent need for daily-scale dynamic monitoring data of snow cover. This dataset is based on the MODIS global surface reflectance product, MO/YD09GA, using the Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis- Automatic-selected Endmembers (MESMA -AGE) and interpolation algorithm based on spatial and temporal information to construct a MODIS day-by-day cloud-free snow cover dataset for the Asian water tower region from 2000 to 2020. With high spatial resolution Landsat images as “ground truth”, the root mean square error is 0.14, which is better than the two snow datasets MODSCAG and MOD10A1 commonly used internationally. The time series of this dataset is from February 26, 2000 to March 31, 2020, which can provide quantitative spatial distribution information of snowpack for mountain hydrological models, land surface models, and numerical weather forecasts.

    2022-05-31 137 16

  • Field investigation of elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) of vegetation in the southeast edge of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountain Area

    Field investigation of elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) of vegetation in the southeast edge of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountain Area

    Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and potassium are important basic life elements of ecosystem. It plays an important role in revealing the impact of its regional variation and spatial pattern on human activities and the sustainable development of ecosystem in the future. The Qinghai Tibet Plateau has unique alpine vegetation types and rich vertical zone landforms and surface cover types. The biogeographic pattern of surface elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium) is an important manifestation of the coupling of carbon, nitrogen and water cycle processes and related mechanisms of alpine ecosystems. This dataset focuses on the distribution pattern and spatial variation of surface materials (plant leaf branch stem root and litter) in the complex ecosystem of the southeast edge of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountain area, in order to provide data support for regional model simulation and ecological management.

    2022-05-31 249 0

  • Distribution of flash flood disaster in Himalayas (1840-2019)

    Distribution of flash flood disaster in Himalayas (1840-2019)

    This data set includes 1:1 million historical mountain flood disaster data in the Himalayas, 1:1 million mountain flood prevention and control area distribution data in the Himalayas, 1:1 million mountain flood zoning distribution data in the Himalayas, and 1:1 million key prevention and control area distribution data in the Himalayas. All data are based on the results of national mountain flood disaster investigation and evaluation, and obtain the information of historical mountain flood disaster occurrence time, location, disaster type, cause, longitude, latitude, quantity, distribution and number of victims in the study area, as well as the distribution data of mountain flood zoning, prevention and control area and key prevention and control areas in the study area, so as to form the distribution data set of historical mountain flood disaster in the Himalayas.

    2022-05-31 101 23

  • Seismic waveform of Hoh-Xil short period dense seismic array (2020-2022)

    Seismic waveform of Hoh-Xil short period dense seismic array (2020-2022)

    The data was collected in Qiangtang (2020.11-2020.12) and Altyn-Tagh (2021.11-2022.01). Four natural seismicity, six near-earthquakes and two teleseisms were recorded by 361 short-period seismometers from Nov. 2020 to Dec. 2020. And 315 short-period seismometers recorded five near-earthquakes and two teleseisms (including the mangya earthquake with m5.3 in Qinghai province on December 19, 2021) from November 11, 2021 to November 1, 2022. After data preprocessing (de-mean, de-linear trend and taper), we cut the events recorded by the seismometer with a fixed width of 1500s from the time of earthquake occurrence for each seismic event(i.e., the time range of each seismic event data is [begin, begin +1500s]). For the active source signals recorded, since the node instrument records continuous signals for a month, the signals recorded by each instrument are intercepted according to the initiation time and location, and the seismic records for 200s are intercepted from the initiation time. After time correction, data of each shot were de-mean, de-linear trend and taper.

    2022-05-31 83 0

  • Distribution data of available wind energy resources with 1km resolution in Qinghai Tibet Plateau (1979-2008)

    Distribution data of available wind energy resources with 1km resolution in Qinghai Tibet Plateau (1979-2008)

    The distribution data of available wind energy resources with 1km resolution in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is based on the multi-year average wind speed in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau obtained by numerical simulation, and considering the constraints and restrictions of terrain, water body, urban and other land use on wind energy development, the comprehensive wind energy resource levels are very rich, rich, relatively rich and general. Set the land availability according to the terrain slope and land use type, deduct the 3km range around the town, divide the land availability into 5 intervals from 0 to 1 according to the interval of 0.2, and then divide the annual average wind speed into 4 intervals. The classification of wind energy resources is obtained through the combination of land availability and wind speed. The data are mainly used for detailed survey of wind energy resources and macro site selection of wind farms.

    2022-05-31 188 0

  • Vulnerability assessment map of disaster bearing bodies in Asian water tower area and Himalaya region (2021)

    Vulnerability assessment map of disaster bearing bodies in Asian water tower area and Himalaya region (2021)

    Vulnerability of disaster bearing body is the degree of damage that human social and economic activities may suffer under the disturbance or pressure of natural disasters under a certain social and economic background, that is, the nature that disaster bearing body is vulnerable to damage and loss in the face of natural disasters. Based on the actual scientific research and expert guidance, this data constructs the vulnerability assessment indicators of disaster bearing bodies from the three aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, and uses the revised serv vulnerability model to calculate the Himalayan surrounding areas (domestic part) and the Asian water tower area. In order to systematically analyze the vulnerability of disaster bearing bodies in the study area, this data selects indicators from six aspects: population, economy, traffic lines, ecological environment, livestock and buildings, and constructs an indicator system of 6 first-class indicators, 18 second-class indicators and 29 third-class indicators. After the obtained vulnerability assessment results of population, economy, traffic lines, ecological environment, livestock and buildings are normalized, the vulnerability assessment maps of Himalayan surrounding areas (domestic part) and Asian water tower area are obtained by vector superposition.

    2022-05-31 153 0