Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (automatic weather station of Zhangye wetland station, 2021)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Zhangye wetland station from January 1 to December 31, 2021. The site (100.4464° E, 38.9751° N) was located on a wetland (reed surface) in Zhangye National Wetland Park, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1460 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45AC; 5 and 10 m, north), wind speed profile (03002; 5 and 10 m, north), wind direction profile (03002; 10 m, north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2 and -0.4 m), and four photosynthetically active radiation (PQS-1; two above the plants, 6 m, south, one vertically downward and one vertically upward; two below the plants, 0.25 m, south, one vertically downward and one vertically upward). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m; RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, and Ts_20 cm) (℃), on the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)), and below the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2021-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2022-05-23

Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Sidaoqiao Superstation, 2021)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Sidaoqiao Superstation from January 1 to December 31, 2021. The site (101.137° E, 42.001° N) was located on a tamarix (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) surface in the Sidaoqiao, Dalaihubu Town, Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The elevation is 873 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HC2S3; 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 28 m, towards north), wind speed profile (010C; 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 28 m, towards north), wind direction profile (020C; 15 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; in waterproof box), rain gauge (TE525M; 28 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (CNR4; 10 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 10 m, towards south, vertically downward), two photosynthetically active radiation (PQS-1; 10 m, towards south, one vertically upward and one vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01SC; 3 duplicates with G1 below the tamarix; G2 and G3 between plants, -0.06 m), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (installed on 17 July, 2013, TCAV; -0.02, -0.04 m), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6, -2.0 m), and soil moisture profile (install on 7 December, 2013, ML2X; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6, -2.0 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m, Ta_7 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m and Ta_28 m; RH_5 m, RH_7 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m and RH_28 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_5 m, Ws_7 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m and Ws_28 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_15 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_up and PAR_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, Ts_160 cm, Ts_200 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, Ms_160 cm, Ms_200 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2021-9-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2022-05-23

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Guazhou Station, 2020)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Guazhou Station from January 1 to December 31, 2021. The site (95.673E, 41.405N) was located on a desert in the Liuyuan Guazhou, which is near Jiuquan city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 2014 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 m, towards north), air pressure (1.5 m), rain gauge (4 m), infrared temperature sensors (4 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), soil heat flux (-0.05 m and -0.1m in south of tower), soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile -0.05, -0.1m, -0.2m, -0.4m, -0.6m and -0.8m in south of tower), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_1_2_1, Ta_1_4_1, Ta_1_8_1, Ta_1_16_1, Ta_1_32_1 and Ta_1_48_1; RH_2 m, RH_1_2_1, RH_1_4_1, RH_1_8_1, RH_1_16_1, RH_1_32_1, and RH_1_48_1) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (WS_1_2_1, WS_1_4_1, WS_1_8_1, WS_1_16_1, WS_1_32_1 and WS_1_48_1) (m/s), wind direction (WD_1_2_1, WD_1_4_1, WD_1_8_1, WD_1_16_1, WD_1_32_1 and WD_1_48_1) (°), air pressure (PA_1_1_1) (hpa), precipitation (P_1_4_1) (mm), four-component radiation (SWIN_1_4_1, incoming shortwave radiation; SWOUT_1_4_1, outgoing shortwave radiation; LWIN_1_4_1, incoming longwave radiation; LWOUT_1_4_1, outgoing longwave radiation; RN_1_4_1, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (TC_1_4_1) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PPFD_1_4_1) (μmol/ (s m^2)), soil heat flux (SHF_1_5_1, SHF_1_10_1) (W/m^2), soil temperature (TS_1_5_1, TS_1_10_1, TS_1_20_1, TS_1_40_1, TS_1_60_1 and TS_1_80_1) (℃), soil moisture (SWC_1_5_1, SWC_1_10_1, SWC_1_20_1, SWC_1_40_1, SWC_1_60_1 and SWC_1_80_1) (%, volumetric water content),soil water potential (SWP_1_5_1, SWP_1_10_1, SWP_1_20_1, SWP_1_40_1, SWP_1_60_1 and SWP_1_80_1)(kpa), soil conductivity (EC_1_5_1, EC_1_10_1, EC_1_20_1, EC_1_40_1, EC_1_60_1 and EC_1_80_1)(μs/cm), Sun_time_1_4_1 (h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. Missing or abnormal data is replaced by – 6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2021-6-10 10:30.

0 2022-05-17

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dunhuang Station, 2021)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dunhuang Station from January 1 to December 31, 2021. The site (93.709° E, 40.348° N) was located on a wetland in the Dunhuang west lake, Gansu Province. The elevation is 994 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (4m and 8 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 4m and 8 m, towards north), air pressure (1 m), rain gauge (4 m), infrared temperature sensors (4 m, towards south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (-0.05 and -0.1m ), soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile (below the vegetation in the south of tower, -0.05 and -0.2 m), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_1_4_1, Ta_1_8_1; RH_1_4_1, RH_1_8_1) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (WS_1_4_1, WS_1_8_1) (m/s), wind direction (WD_1_4_1, WD_1_8_1) (°), air pressure (PA_1_1_1) (hpa), precipitation (P_1_4_1) (mm), four-component radiation (SWIN_1_4_1, incoming shortwave radiation; SWOUT_1_4_1, outgoing shortwave radiation; LWIN_1_4_1, incoming longwave radiation; LWOUT_1_4_1, outgoing longwave radiation; RN_1_4_1, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (TC_1_4_1) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PPFD_1_4_1) (μmol/ (s m-2)), soil heat flux (SHF_1_5_1、SHF_1_10_1) (W/m^2), soil temperature (TS_1_5_1、TS_1_20_1) (℃), soil moisture (SWC_1_5_1、SWC_1_20_1) (%, volumetric water content), soil conductivity (SWC_1_5_1、SWC_1_20_1)(μs/cm), sun time(Sun_time_1_4_1). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. Missing or abnormal data is replaced by – 6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2021-6-10 10:30.

0 2022-05-17

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (Phenology camera observation data set of Liancheng Station, 2021)

The data set contains the phenological camera observation data of Sidalong station of Lanzhou University cold and arid area scientific observation network in Heihe River Basin from February 1, 2021 to September 15, 2021. The longitude and latitude of the observation points are 99.926e, 38.428n and 3146m above sea level. The data is processed using the software package independently developed by Beijing Normal University. The phenological camera collects data in a downward way. The resolution of shooting data is 2592 * 1944, and the shooting time and frequency can be specified. For the calculation of greenness index phenological period, it is necessary to calculate the relative greenness index according to the region of interest (GCC, green chromatographic coordinate formula is GCC = g / (R + G + b), and R, G and B are the pixel values of red, green and blue channels of the image), then fill in the invalid values and filter and smooth them, and finally determine the key phenological period parameters according to the growth curve fitting, such as the start date, peak and end date of the growth season; For the coverage, data preprocessing is carried out first, the image with less strong illumination is selected, and then the image is divided into vegetation and soil. The proportion of vegetation pixels in the calculation area of each image is calculated as the corresponding coverage of the image. After the time series data is extracted, the original coverage data is smoothed and filtered according to the time window specified by the user. The filtered result is the final time series coverage. This data set includes the relative greenness index (GCC).

0 2022-05-17

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (Phenology camera observation data set of Suganhu Station, 2021)

The data set contains the phenological camera observation data of suganhu station of Lanzhou University cold and arid area scientific observation network in halteng River Basin of Qaidam Basin from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021. The longitude and latitude of the observation points are 94.125 ° e, 38.992n and 2798m above sea level. The data is processed using the software package independently developed by Beijing Normal University. The phenological camera collects data in a downward way. The resolution of shooting data is 2592 * 1944, and the shooting time and frequency can be specified. For the calculation of greenness index phenological period, it is necessary to calculate the relative greenness index according to the region of interest (GCC, green chromatographic coordinate formula is GCC = g / (R + G + b), and R, G and B are the pixel values of red, green and blue channels of the image), then fill in the invalid values and filter and smooth them, and finally determine the key phenological period parameters according to the growth curve fitting, such as the start date, peak and end date of the growth season; For the coverage, data preprocessing is carried out first, the image with less strong illumination is selected, and then the image is divided into vegetation and soil. The proportion of vegetation pixels in the calculation area of each image is calculated as the corresponding coverage of the image. After the time series data is extracted, the original coverage data is smoothed and filtered according to the time window specified by the user. The filtered result is the final time series coverage. This data set includes the relative greenness index (GCC). The phenological camera of the site adjusted the shooting angle on August 12, 2021.

0 2022-05-17

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (eddy covariance system of Suganhu station, 2021)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Suganhu station eddy covariance system (EC) in the middle reaches of the Heihe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 27 in 2021. The site (94.12E, 38.99N was located in a desert in Suganhu, which is in Gansu Province. The elevation is 2823 m. The EC was installed at a height of 4.0 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500A) was 0.17 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Eddypro post-processing software, including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC): class 1-3 (high quality), class 4-6 (good), class 7-8 (poor, better than gap filling data), class9 (rejected). In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. Detailed information can be found in the suggested references.

0 2022-05-17

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (eddy covariance system of Xiyinghe station, 2021)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Xiyinghe station eddy covariance system (EC) in the middle reaches of the Heihe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 27 in 2021. The site (101.853E, 37.561N) was located on a alpine meadow in the Menyuan, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3639 m. The EC was installed at a height of 4.0 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500A) was 0.17 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Eddypro post-processing software, including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC): class 1-3 (high quality), class 4-6 (good), class 7-8 (poor, better than gap filling data), class9 (rejected). In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. Detailed information can be found in the suggested references.

0 2022-05-17

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (eddy covariance system of Minqin station, 2021)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Minqin station eddy covariance system (EC) in the middle reaches of the Shiyanghe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 27 in 2021. The site (103.668E, 39.208N) was located on a alpine meadow in the Wuwei, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1020 m. The EC was installed at a height of 4.0 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500A) was 0.17 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Eddypro post-processing software, including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC): class 1-3 (high quality), class 4-6 (good), class 7-8 (poor, better than gap filling data), class9 (rejected). In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. Detailed information can be found in the suggested references.

0 2022-05-17

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (Phenology camera observation data set of Liancheng Station, 2021)

The data set contains the phenological camera observation data of Minqin station of Lanzhou University cold and arid area scientific observation network in Shiyang River Basin from March 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021. The longitude and latitude of the observation points are 103.668e, 39.208n and 1020m above sea level. The data is processed using the software package independently developed by Beijing Normal University. The phenological camera collects data in a downward way. The resolution of shooting data is 2592 * 1944, and the shooting time and frequency can be specified. For the calculation of greenness index phenological period, it is necessary to calculate the relative greenness index according to the region of interest (GCC, green chromatographic coordinate formula is GCC = g / (R + G + b), and R, G and B are the pixel values of red, green and blue channels of the image), then fill in the invalid values and filter and smooth them, and finally determine the key phenological period parameters according to the growth curve fitting, such as the start date, peak and end date of the growth season; For the coverage, data preprocessing is carried out first, the image with less strong illumination is selected, and then the image is divided into vegetation and soil. The proportion of vegetation pixels in the calculation area of each image is calculated as the corresponding coverage of the image. After the time series data is extracted, the original coverage data is smoothed and filtered according to the time window specified by the user. The filtered result is the final time series coverage. This data set includes the relative greenness index (GCC).

0 2022-05-17